Increasingly, the central question is becoming who will have access to the information these machines must have in storage to guarantee that the right decisions are made. Lyotard JF The Postmodern Condition Excerpt Chapters 9 and 10 Black, 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful, . Jean-François Lyotard is credited with being the first to use the term in a philosophical context, in his 1979 work The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. one, the positivist kind, would be directly applicable to technologies bearing on men and materials, and would lend itself to operating as an indispensable productive force within the system. They also privilege certain classes of statements (sometimes only one) whose predominance characterises the discourse of the particular institution: there arc things that should be said, and there are ways of saving them. The idea that society forms an organic whole, in the absence of which it ceases to be a society (and sociology ceases to have an object of study), dominated the minds of the founders of the French school. These new forms of circulation imply that investment decisions have, at least in part, passed beyond the control of the nation-states.” The question threatens to become even more thorny with the development of computer technology and telematics. A different case involves utterances of the type, “Give money to the university”; these are prescriptions. The First 5 Chapters of main body of work are reproduced here. A move can be made for the sheer pleasure of its invention: what else is involved in that labor of language harassment undertaken by popular speech and by literature? The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge Jean-Francois Lyotard What is postmodernism? We will have to content ourselves with a glance at the balance sheet, which is possible for us to tally today now that their fate is known: in countries with liberal or advanced liberal management, the struggles and their instruments have been transformed into regulators of the system; in communist countries, the totalising model and its totalitarian effect have made a comeback in the name of Marxism itself, and the struggles in question have simply been deprived of the right to exist. His book The Postmodern Condition (1984; orig. The war is not without rules, but the rules allow and encourage the greatest possible flexibility of utterance. Or better: one is always located at a post through which various kinds of messages pass. Wittgenstein, taking up the study of language again from scratch, focuses his attention on the effects of different modes of discourse; he calls the various types of utterances he identifies along the way (a few of which I have listed) language games. Lyotard's General Arguments. As I have already said, economic “redeployment” in the current phase of capitalism, aided by a shift in techniques and technology, goes hand in hand with a change in the function of the State: the image of society this syndrome suggests necessitates a serious revision of the alternate approaches considered. It depends on each individual’s industriousness. Knowledge is and will be produced in order to be sold, it is and will be consumed in order to be valorised in a new production: in both cases, the goal is exchange. Simplifying to the extreme, it is fair to say that in principle there have been, at least over the last half-century, two basic representational models for society: either society forms a functional whole, or it is divided in two. The objection will be made, at least, that the weight of certain institutions imposes limits on the games, and thus restricts the inventiveness of the players in making their moves. Get this from a library! The scenario of the computerisation of the most highly developed societies allows us to spotlight (though with the risk of excessive magnification) certain aspects of the transformation of knowledge and its effects on public power and civil institutions – effects it would be difficult to perceive from other points of view. We may thus expect a thorough exteriorisation of knowledge with respect to the “knower,” at whatever point he or she may occupy in the knowledge process. They can be modulated as orders, commands, instructions, recommendations, requests, prayers, pleas, etc. It is not hard to visualise learning circulating along the same lines as money, instead of for its “educational” value or political (administrative, diplomatic, military) importance; the pertinent distinction would no longer be between knowledge and ignorance, but rather, as is the case with money, between “payment knowledge” and “investment knowledge” – in other words, between units of knowledge exchanged in a daily maintenance framework (the reconstitution of the work force, “survival”) versus funds of knowledge dedicated to optimising the performance of a project. Jean-Francois Lyotard Postmodern Condition The Postmodern Condition A Report on Knowledge In The Postmodern Condition, Lyotard provides his most thorough treatment of the postmodern, and for this reason I shall subject this work to a close reading.2 Lyotard continues to use this concept through the mid-90s. At most, what is debated is the form that accumulation takes – some picture it as regular, continuous, and unanimous, others as periodic, discontinuous, and conflictual. A portion of the description would necessarily be conjectural. The second is that if there are no rules, there is no game, that even an infinitesimal modification of one rule alters the nature of the game, that a “move” or utterance that does not satisfy the rules does not belong to the game they define. If the problem is described simply in terms of communication theory, two things are overlooked: first, messages have quite different forms and effects depending on whether they are, for example, denotatives, prescriptives, evaluatives, performatives, etc. It is useful to make the following three observations about language games. Jean-François Lyotard (1979) The Postmodern Condition A Report on Knowledge. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (French: La condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir) is a 1979 book by the philosopher Jean-François Lyotard, in which the author analyzes the notion of knowledge in postmodern society as the end of 'grand narratives' or metanarratives, which he considers a quintessential feature of modernity. With respect to the first function, genetics provides an example that is accessible to the layman: it owes its theoretical paradigm to cybernetics. On the whole, Lyotard’s talk of ‘postmodern science’ is severely misconstrued at best, and profoundly mistaken at worst (Sokal and Bricmont, 1998, pp. In any case the “atoms” forming its matter are competent to handle statements such as these – and this question in particular. This model was born of the struggles accompanying the process of capitalism’s encroachment upon traditional civil societies. If we consider a declaration such as “The university is open,” pronounced by a dean or rector at convocation, it is clear that the previous specifications no longer apply. Access to data is, and will continue to be, the prerogative of experts of all stripes. In The Postmodern Condition Jean-Francois Lyotard extends that analysis to postmodernism by looking at the status uf science, technology, and the arts, the significance of technocracy, and the way the flow of information and knowledge are controlled in the Western world. It is tempting to avoid the decision altogether by distinguishing two kinds of knowledge. 134 –146). The first is that their rules do not carry within themselves their own legitimation, but are the object of a contract, explicit or not, between players (which is not to say that the players invent the rules). What he means by this term is that each of the various categories of utterance can be defined in terms of rules specifying their properties and the uses to which they can be put – in exactly the same way as the game of chess is defined by a set of rules determining the properties of each of the pieces, in other words, the proper way to move them. Each language partner, when a “move” pertaining to him is made, undergoes a “displacement,” an alteration of some kind that not only affects him in his capacity as addressee and referent, but also as sender. 3 Chapter Summaries - Summary The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations Measure for Measure Summary and Characters The Tell-Tale Heart The War of the Worlds - Summary The Age of Total War 1860-1945 Lannon chapters 2-3 summaries - White Teeth The Postmodern Condition A Report on Knowledge 1 His book The Postmodern Condition (1984a; orig. Now take the example of a scientific statement: it is subject to the rule that a statement must fulfil a given set of conditions in order to be accepted as scientific. To the postmodernist, there exists no absolute truth. A cybernetic machine does indeed run on information, but the goals programmed into it, for example, originate in prescriptive and evaluative statements it has no way to correct in the course of its functioning – for example, maximising its own performance, how can one guarantee that performance maximisation is the best goal for the social system in every case. Or more simply still, the question of the social bond, insofar as it is a question, is itself a language game, the game of inquiry. When we examine the current status of scientific knowledge at a time when science seems more completely subordinated to the prevailing powers than ever before and, along with the new technologies, is in danger of becoming a major stake in their conflicts – the question of double legitimation, far from receding into the background, necessarily comes to the fore. 4 people found this helpful. And each of us knows that our self does not amount to much. The theoretical and even material model is no longer the living organism; it is provided by cybernetics, which, during and after the Second World War, expanded the model’s applications. Excerpt. BA International Studies Introduction to Cultural Studies 2019-2020.pdf, Karnataka State Open University • SOC FUNCTIONALISM 1, PharmD Syllabus - Virology 2018 FINAL.pdf, 2019_Book_16thInternationalConferenceOnI.pdf, 2019_Book_ImageAnalysisAndProcessingICIA_part2.pdf, 2019_Book_EnterpriseBusiness-ProcessAndI.pdf, 2019_Book_NewTrendsInImageAnalysisAndPro.pdf. Who will have access to them? 7190-1454-9 ISBN o-7190-1450-6 pbk. Finally, barring economic stagnation or a general recession (resulting, for example, from a continued failure to solve the world’s energy problems), there is a good chance that this scenario will come to pass: it is hard to see what other direction contemporary technology could take as an alternative to the computerisation of society. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. How does this shift revise the means and methods of productions and the products created? Report abuse. Nevertheless, it has strong credibility, and in that sense our choice of this hypothesis is not arbitrary. The sole purpose of this schematic (or skeletal) reminder has been to specify the problematic in which I intend to frame the question of knowledge in advanced industrial societies. The distinctive feature of this second, “performative,” utterance is that its effect upon the referent coincides with its enunciation. Marx | Reciprocally, it can be said that the boundaries only stabilise when they cease to be stakes in the game. Barthes | Althusser | Expecting this, with hope or fear, to lead to a revolution (as was then often the case) is out of the question: it will not change the order of things in postindustrial society overnight. But then again, it is not exactly a life goal. New legal issues will be raised, and with them the question: “who will know?”. In the work of contemporary German theorists, systemtheorie is technocratic, even cynical, not to mention despairing: the harmony between the needs and hopes of individuals or groups and the functions guaranteed by the system is now only a secondary component of its functioning. Many other examples could be cited. Helpful. The State? Judged by the yardstick of science, the majority of them prove to be fables. Dedicating oneself to “catching up with Germany,” the life goal the French president [Giscard d’Estaing at the time this book was published in France] seems to be offering his countrymen, is not exactly exciting. This idea of an agonistics of language should not make us lose sight of the second principle, which stands as a complement to it and governs our analysis: that the observable social bond is composed of language “moves.” An elucidation of this proposition will take us to the heart of the matter at hand. Transformation in the nature of knowledge, then, could well have repercussions on the existing public powers, forcing them to reconsider their relations (both de jure and de facto) with the large corporations and, more generally, with civil society. Rather than painting a picture that would inevitably remain incomplete, I will take as my point of departure a single feature, one that immediately defines our object of study. I suggest that the alternative it attempts to resolve, but only reproduces, is no longer relevant for the societies with which we are concerned and that the solution itself is stilt caught within a type of oppositional thinking that is out of step with the most vital modes of postmodern knowledge. The Postmodern Explained to Children Correspondence 1982-1985 @inproceedings{Lyotard1992ThePE, title={The Postmodern Explained to Children Correspondence 1982-1985}, author={Jean-François Lyotard and J. Pefanis and M. Thomas}, year={1992} } It is conceivable that the nation-states will one day fight for control of information, just as they battled in the past for control over territory, and afterwards for control of access to and exploitation of raw materials and cheap labor. It would be superficial to reduce its significance to the traditional alternative between manipulatory speech and the unilateral transmission of messages on the one hand, and free expression and dialogue on the other. Welcome to The Postmodern Condition by French philosopher Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998). Can you tell stories in a cabinet meeting? Learn more about Orientalism and Civilization and Its Discontents with Course Hero's Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The point is that there is a strict interlinkage between the kind of language called science and the kind called ethics and politics: they both stem from the same perspective, the same “choice” if you will – the choice called the Occident. This transition has been under way since at least the end of the 1950s, which for Europe marks the completion of reconstruction. Chapter 5: Lyotard and Postmodern Gaming. In the computer age, the question of knowledge is now more than ever a question of government. Places emphasis on narrative in the fields of science, too. The ruling class is and will continue to be the class of decision makers. Get this from a library! Jean-Francois Lyotard’s material has been highly influential in the development of postmodern thought. Thus the question of what Lyotard may have meant by the postmodern is two fold: How is the postmodern defined in The Post- For it appears in its most complete form, that of reversion, revealing that knowledge and power are simply two sides of the same question: who decides what knowledge is, and who knows what needs to be decided? Even taking into account the massive displacement intervening between the thought of a man like Comte and the thought of Luhmann, we can discern a common conception of the social: society is a unified totality, a “unicity.” Parsons formulates this clearly: “The most essential condition of successful dynamic analysis is a continual and .systematic reference of every problem to the state of the system as a whole ... A process or set of conditions either ‘contributes’ to the maintenance (or development) of the system or it is ‘dysfunctional’ in that it detracts from the integration, effectiveness, etc., of the ‘system.” The “technocrats” also subscribe to this idea. Lyotard – metanarrative – modernism Themostwidelycited attempttoeffectivelypose thequestionof whatpostmodern-ism is was provided by the French philosopher Jean-François Lyotard, and his position has been restated in many general texts on postmodernism. Read sections 1-30 (there are no, Bring in a draft of your term paper. The other the critical, reflexive, or hermeneutic kind by reflecting directly or indirectly on values or alms, would resist any such “recuperation.”. Jean Baudrillard, ‘The Precession of Simulacra’, in Storey (Reader), p. 409-415. Legitimation is the process by which a legislator is authorised to promulgate such a law as a norm. That scientific and technical knowledge is cumulative is never questioned. The postmodern scientist is the author not of the grand narrative, but of the little narrative, a project Lyotard implies will be the cultural work of the postmodern condition. What Lyotard presented in The Postmodern Condition was not just a “report” on the future of education but also a road map for this future. 1979) introduced the term to a broad public and has been widely discussed in the postmodern debates of the last decade. Even when its rules are in the process of changing and innovations are occurring, even when its dysfunctions (such as strikes, crises, unemployment, or political revolutions) inspire hope and lead to belief in an alternative, even then what is actually taking place is only an internal readjustment, and its result can be no more than an increase in the system’s “viability.” The only alternative to this kind of performance improvement is entropy, or decline. Take any civil law as an example: it states that a given category of citizens must perform a specific kind of action. Everywhere, the Critique of political economy (the subtitle of Marx’s Capital) and its correlate, the critique of alienated society, are used in one way or another as aids in programming the system. I have read an art critic who packages and sells Transavantgardism’ in the marketplace of painting. It should now be clear from which perspective I chose language games as my general methodological approach. In this case, legitimation is the process by which a “legislator” dealing with scientific discourse is authorised to prescribe the stated conditions (in general, conditions of internal consistency and experimental verification) determining whether a statement is to be included in that discourse for consideration by the scientific community. Chapters 9 and 10 Pages 31-41. But as we will see, it is not. But I think this can be taken into account without causing any particular difficulty. This preview shows page 4 - 5 out of 5 pages. This last observation brings us to the first principle underlying our method as a whole: to speak is to fight, in the sense of playing, and speech acts fall within the domain of a general agonistics. Actually, we could say it the other way around: the sender is dean or rector that is, he is invested with the authority to make this kind of statement – only insofar as he can directly affect both the referent, (the university) and the addressee (the university staff) in the manner I have indicated. An illustration of the first model is suggested by Talcott Parsons (at least the postwar Parsons) and his school, and of the second, by the Marxist current (all of its component schools, whatever differences they may have, accept both the principle of class struggle and dialectics as a duality operating within society).”. "Answering the Question: "What Is Postmodemism?" “Critical” theory, based on a principle of dualism and wary of syntheses and reconciliations, should be in a position to avoid this fate. What is new in all of this is that the old poles of attraction represented by nation-states, parties, professions, institutions, and historical traditions are losing their attraction. Even now it is no longer composed of the traditional political class, but of a composite layer of corporate leaders, high-level administrators, and the heads of the major professional, labor, political, and religious organisations. To some extent, then, it is already a part of observable reality. Era of fast-paced technological development "age of stupefaction... characterized by discontinuity and fragmentation" (Drolet) Challenging dominant ideologies Lyotard's book focuses on In many circles, Lyotard is celebrated as the postmodern theorist par excellence. I am not claiming that the entirety of social relations is of this nature – that will remain an open question. Indeed, this situation is one of the reasons leading to the conclusion that the gap between developed and developing countries will grow ever wider in the future. In many circles, Lyotard is celebrated as the postmodern theorist par excellence. It is widely accepted that knowledge has become the principle force of production over the last few decades, this has already had a noticeable effect on the composition of the work force of the most highly developed countries and constitutes the major bottleneck for the developing countries. But there is no need to resort to some fiction of social origins to establish that language games are the minimum relation required for society to exist: even before he is born, if only by virtue of the name he is given, the human child is already positioned as the referent in the story recounted by those around him, in relation to which he will inevitably chart his course. This scenario, akin to the one that goes by the name “the computerisation of society” (although ours is advanced in an entirely different spirit), makes no claims of being original, or even true. One’s mobility in relation to these language game effects (language games, of course, are what this is all about) is tolerable, at least within certain limits (and the limits are vague); it is even solicited by regulatory mechanisms, and in particular by the self-adjustments the system undertakes in order to improve its performance. And will continue to be an end in itself, it is clear what! 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