Agric. J. Soc. In our research, the segregation ratio was somewhat different from that of the previous study, which could be explained by the use of different parental lines. On average, watermelon has about 40 per cent more lycopene than raw tomatoes. Enjoy the benefits of lycopene by eating more tomatoes and processed tomato products. Plant Sci. Nucleic Acids Res. 3, there were approximately 22 full red fleshed individuals out of 116 plants. trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses. Japan. 20, 63–72. 60 (23), 5936–5944. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum & Nakai) is a natural source of lycopene, with a reported average content of 48.7 µg g−1 fresh weight based on samples taken from retail produce. 106, 779–785. Hortic. Theor. Foods high in lycopene. Basic local alignment search tool. The yellow-fruited tomato 1 (yft1) mutant has altered fruit carotenoid accumulation and reduced ethylene production as a result of a genetic lesion in ethylene insensitive2. 128 (5), 851–864. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. (2011). (2016). Theor. Red tomato is also a high-lycopene-content plant, which reportedly undergoes pigment development similar to that of watermelon (Grassi et al., 2013); however, the two fruits are still suggested to have different regulatory systems in their carotenoid biosynthesis pathways. 3 were also used in our research. J. Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. (2010). The shaded area on linkage group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with red flesh color traits (LCYB4.1). Development and characterization of PCR markers in cucumber. Construction of a watermelon BAC library and identification of SSRs anchored to melon or Arabidopsis genomes. In this study, Cla005011 seemed to be the best candidate gene for lycopene accumulation and red flesh color formation. doi: 10.1179/174329211X13020951739938, Liu, C. H., Zhang, H. Y., Dai, Z. Y., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Deng, X. X., et al. To explore the expression levels of select candidate genes in watermelon varieties with different flesh colors, four watermelon varieties were selected (according to the website http://cucurbitgenomics.org/): species 97103 (red flesh), PI 296341 (white flesh), COS (pale yellow flesh), and LSW-177 (red flesh). Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). The cauliflower Or gene encodes aDnaJ cysteine-rich domain-containing protein that mediates high levels of beta-carotene accumulation. Appl. Lycopene suppresses LPS-induced NO and IL-6 production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK, and NF-k B in macrophages. (2003). The SSR marker SSR17292 also showed different polymorphisms in the 81 watermelon accessions but did not cosegregate with flesh color. Biol. 135(4), 362–368. The segregation of flesh color in Pop. We performed whole genome resequencing (WGRS) of 24 watermelons with different flesh colors to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to high lycopene content. This work was also supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (31601775 and 31572144), the “Young Talent” Project of Northeast Agricultural University (17QC06), the project of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M611345), and the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-25). Appl. (Mosc.) The ratio of red alleles and nonred alleles was 1:3 and 1:1 for Pop. The skewed distribution of lycopene content in Pop. Genet. Cla005012. 35 (8), 160. doi: 10.1007/s11032-015-0354-x, Hashizume, T., Shimamoto, I., Hirai, M. (2003). Only two full red-fleshed plants were detected in Pop. Genet. The two trait-related QTLs shared the same region, and the red flesh color gave a high correlation with the lycopene content in the F2 generation for Pop. The genome data of 4 parental materials and 20 other published watermelon accessions (Guo et al., 2012) were used to extract the sequence of the LCYB gene for sequence alignment and variation detection. 129, 1247–1256. Lycopene Content in Different PloidyWatermelon Lycopene contents were different between red flesh watermelon varieties and also varied with different ploidy levels (Table 1). In previous research, the red flesh color trait in watermelon was found to be controlled by a single recessive gene (Henderson et al., 1998, Bang et al., 2010). & Nakai. Development of a co-dominant CAPS marker for allelic selection between canary yellow and red watermelon based on SNP in lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) gene. Food Sci. The results showed that all genes were divided into three categories, which were defined as lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) and lycopene epsilon-cyclase (LCYE). It was also likely that the difference in protein levels or functionality may regulate the color of the fruit (Wang et al., 2016). However, for each color system, other genes may regulate the amount of pigment accumulation to direct the formation of different shades of flesh color. Mol. 37 (12), 146. doi: 10.1007/s11032-017-0747-0, Campbell, R., Pont, S. D. A., Morris, J. Lycopene content of red fleshed watermelon (4.81 mg/100 g on average) is almost 40% higher than that of tomato (3.03 mg/100 g) [ 69 ]. Genet. QTL IciMapping: integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations. Comparative fruit coloration in watermelon and tomato. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow, and red watermelon. doi: 10.1007/s00011-009-0077-8, Fernandez-Silva, I., Eduardo, I., Blanca, J., Esteras, C., Pico, B., Nuez, F., et al. Figure S4 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and WII04E08-38. Cultivars varied greatly in lycopene content, … (2012). Euphytica 200 (3), 363–378. Watermelon provides about 12.7 grams of lycopene per 2 cup serving. Theor. Genet. (2014). doi: 10.1270/jsbbs1951.13.235, Silberstein, L., Kovalski, I., Brotman, Y., Perin, C., Dogimont, C., Pitrat, M., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.cj.2015.01.001, Nakkanong, K., Yang, J. H., Zhang, M. F. (2012). With these marker codes, we can easily distinguish the three types of flesh color in watermelon. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly investigated (Cazzonelli and Pogson, 2010), but little research was focused on QTL analysis of lycopene accumulation in watermelon. Identification and validation of a core set of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Contains Nutrients and Beneficial Plant Compounds. Appl. Sci.) Biol. Renowned Nutritionist, Dr. Shilpa Arora shares, 'Watermelons consist of 94 percent water, lycopene, potassium and a lot of other nutrients. Cytogenetical studies in the genus Citrullus. For tomato ketchup, the range was 116.59 and 254.98 mg/kg FW; for tomato juice, the range was 9.90 and 54.21 mg/kg FW. Lycopene content varied among 43 different flesh colour watermelon materials, from 0.0000 mg/100 g FW in G8 to 5.7536 mg/100 g FW in G4. Theor. Appl. lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya). Mol. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2010.01.027, Kapustin, Y., Souvorov, A., Tatusova, T., Lipman, D. (2008). LCYB clusters I and II contained 13 and 9 genes, respectively. Copyright © 2019 Wang, Qiao, Fang, Sun, Gao, Davis, Liu and Luan. Cla005012 was annotated as the kinesin-like protein that seemed to be not related with lycopene accumulation. Genet. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 is the D2000 plus DNA marker. in response to rootstock-scion combinations under various environmental conditions. grafting for the cultivation of watermelon under adverse environments. 3, while none were detected in Pop. Protects Your Joints. doi: 10.1093/jhered/93.1.77, Wang, L. Y., Meng, X., Yang, D. Y., Ma, N. N., Wang, G. D., Meng, Q. W. (2014). Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E, a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient, and unusual amounts of the amino acid citrulline. (2017). Schrad (Cucurbitaceae)] with different flesh colors. (2012). doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2010.02.003, Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Ohali, S., Meir, A., Yeselson, Y., Portnoy, V., et al. 94 (1), 169–191. doi: 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2, Bang, H., Kim, S., Leskovar, D., King, S. (2007). doi: 10.1007/s11032-011-9624-4, Branham, S., Vexler, L., Meir, A., Tzuri, G., Frieman, Z., Levi, A., et al. Appl. Recently, there has been increased interest in red-fleshed watermelons because they contain the antioxidant cis-isomeric lycopene. Studies on the lycopene content of watermelon germplasm collections are very scarce (Pinto et al., 2001) and mostly limited to commercial cultivars (Kalaivani, 2015; Nagal et al., 2012; Perkins-Veazie and Collins, 2003). 21 (2), 531–541. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1308-9, Lu, H. W., Miao, H., Tian, G. L., Wehner, T. C., Gu, X. F., Zhang, S. P. (2015). It is reasonable to speculate that LCYB may regulate lycopene metabolism through protein level. Agric. Some white-fleshed PI lines were heterozygous at these marker loci. doi: 10.1007/s00122-008-0868-2, Danin-Poleg, Y., Reis, N., Tzuri, G. (2001). Mol. In Pop. 118, 139–150. Genet. (2016). B., Tian, P. (2010). Red flesh watermelon is, togheter with tomato, the main food sources of lycopene as the plentiful carotenoid. 25, 1–4. 1 implied that a major effect gene controlled this trait. A total of 33 homologous genes were divided into three clusters. In our research, different shades of flesh color in one color system validate the same MAS results. 29, 333–347. doi: 10.1111/nph.14257, Zhang, H., Wang, H., Guo, S., Ren, Y., Gong, G., Weng, Y., et al. In our research, we developed two CAPS markers that cosegregated with yellowish flesh color both in the individuals of the genetic population and those in the natural panel. 3, two flesh colors (red and red mixed with white) appeared in individuals homozygous for the same alleles as garden parent, while plants with other flesh colors carried heterozygous alleles, similar to the F1 generation. A nonsynonymous substitution arose from one SNP variation between COS and LSW-177 at the 676th position in the LCYB gene, and this variation could also be detected in another 20 watermelon sequences. Am. MEGA X: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. doi: 10.13925/j.cnki.gsxb.2008.06.018. The results showed that lycopene in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. Carotenoid analysis of a liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and functional identification of its lycopene β- and ε-cyclase genes. Two kinds of assisted selection markers for red flesh color in watermelon were generated by Bang et al. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit. Overcome Impotence. J. Hunan Agric. (2010). Cucurbit Genomics Database (CuGenDB): a central portal for comparative and functional genomics of cucurbit crops. 3 (3), 269–283. 117, 1345–1359. MATSUM & NAKAI] using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR markers. Watermelon is an unusual fruit source of the carotenoid lycopene and a rich source of phenolic antioxidants. Studies have shown that a cup and a half of watermelon contains about 9 to 13 milligrams of lycopene. In the research of Zhang and colleagues, watermelon lines 97103 (red-fleshed) and PI 296341-FR (light yellowish green flesh color, which is regarded as a white-fleshed parental line) were used to form F2 and F9-RIL populations. For the CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40, the PCR amplicons were 517 and 618 bp for all 81 accessions. Genet. Genome 46, 761–773. From the top to the bottom was 5,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000, 750, 500, 250, 100 bp fragments, respectively. Theor. The nonsynonymous SNP locus in Cla005011 in the 676th coding region (Figure 5 and Figure S3) may be the key site causing the change in enzyme activity, which may still need further investigation. Construction of molecular genetic map of watermelon by SSR and ISSR technology. doi: 10.13331/j.cnki.jhau.2003.04.016, Young, A. J. The transcriptional expression (RPKM) of two candidate genes, Cla005011 and Cla005012, in the above species of watermelons was quantified at different periods of development. doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2349-0, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Capel, C., del Carmen, A. F., Alba, J. M., Lima-Silva, V., Hernandez-Gras, F., Salinas, M., et al. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars. As far as fruits go, watermelon is one of the … (1997). Comparative mechanisms and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants. The highest lycopene amount was found in watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. The lycopene content of tomatoes was measured to be between 40.19 and 108.06 mg/kg FW, while that of watermelons was between 24.23 and 69.12 mg/kg FW. 15, 247. doi: 10.1186/s12870-015-0661-8, Cuevas, H. E., Staub, J. E., Simon, P. W., Zalapa, J. E., McCreight, J. D. (2008). Mapping of quantitative trait loci for lycopene content and fruit traits in Citrullus lanatus. J. Hered. Crop J. (2005). Mol. Figure S1 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (352 plants) derived from a cross between LSW-177 and COS. kg− 1. J. Exp. Plant 83 (4), 702–708. Based on the genotyping results, the CAPS markers WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 cosegregated with red and pink flesh color in these accessions, except in two PI lines (PI 193963 and PI 601228, which had yellowish flesh but exhibited the same restriction enzyme fragments as the red and pink plants). Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Genet. Based on the preliminary mapping information, new CAPS markers were developed to narrow down the region from 392,077 bp to 41,233 bp. Chinese melon (Cucumis melo L.) diversity analyses provide strategies for germplasm curation, genetic improvement, and evidentiary support of domestication patterns. J. Hered. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. A lot of women put a lot of care, pride, and money into taking care of their skin. Univ. Mapping of genetic loci that regulate quantity of beta-carotene in fruit of US Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.). Figure S3 | The sequence alignment of LCYB gene with 24 watermelon accessions. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 93 (1), 77–78. Matsum. (2013). For other flesh colors, digestion was still weak according to a previous study. Lycopene is non-toxic and is commonly found in the diet, "Watermelons help with overall hydration, and that is a great thing," said Lemond. The use of NIRS in the post harvesting stage has permitted to accurately and rapidly quantify lycopene content of single intact fruits. Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotenoid hydrocarbon found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, grapefruits, and papayas, but it is not present in strawberries or cherries. Theor. The range of lycopene content among diploid watermelon fruit was from 33.2 to 54.8 mg kg" with a mean of44.1mg kg", The Some genes affect pigments at the level of the transcriptome, such as the phytoene synthase (PSY) gene, which showed significantly different expression between red- and white-fleshed watermelon accessions (Grassi et al., 2013). Inheritance and InDel markers closely linked to petal color gene (cpc-1) in Brassica oleracea. doi: 10.21273/JASHS03690-16, Yi, K., Xu, X. L., Lu, X. Y., Xu, Y., Xiao, L. T., Wang, Y. J., et al. Theor. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions. Papayas were the third in accumulated lycopene (45.342±0.000 mg/kg). Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Mol. doi: 10.16861/j.cnki.zggc.2012.03.001, Zalapa, J. E., Staub, J. E., McCreight, J. D., Chung, S. M., Cuevas, H. (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.022, Mortensen, A., Skibsted, L. H., Sampson, J., Rice-Evans, C., Everett, S. A. ( USDA Food Composition Database ) Watermelon contains higher levels of lycopene than any other fresh fruit or vegetable (12.7 mg per 2-cup serving) and is part of a healthy diet . 129, 717–728. To take advantage of grafting, growers need information regarding fruit maturity and quality (flesh firmness, total soluble solids (TSSs), lycopene content, etc.) Sci. Genetic mapping of a major codominant QTL associated with β-carotene accumulation in watermelon. The genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and flesh color formation. Am. A bulk segregant transcriptome analysis reveals metabolic and cellular processes associated with orange allelic variation and fruit beta-carotene accumulation in melon fruit. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (<50 mg/kg fw), average (50−70 mg/kg fw), high (70−90 mg/kg fw), and very high (>90 mg/kg fw). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2016 The Author(s). Euphytica 202 (3), 411–426. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material. In the yellowish group, each plant exhibited 389- or 128-bp bands for WII04EKpnI-1 and 460- or 158-bp bands for WII04E07-40. 102, 61–72. Int. 3, respectively. Wide-genome QTL mapping of fruit quality traits in a tomato RIL population derived from the wild-relative species Solanum pimpinellifolium L. Theor. By performing stepwise increases in mapping population sizes, marker numbers, and multiple genetic populations, a major effective QTL and candidate gene related to lycopene content and red flesh color was refined in a narrow region of chromosome 4. 2 and Pop. A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes. (F) BioProject: PRJNA338036 (RPKM of COS and LSW-177), DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42. Appl. doi: 10.1007/s11032-006-9076-4, Bang, H, Davis, A. R., Kim, S, Leskovar, D. I., King, S. R. (2010). doi: 10.1111/tpj.12814, Voorrips, R. E. (2002). 2 and Pop. (1900). Genet. Recently, QTLs for lycopene content (LCYB) in watermelon was identified on chromosome 4 [8, 33] and for β-carotene on chromosome 1 . Sci. 35 (6), 1547–1549. doi: 10.1038/ng.2470, Gusmini, G., Wehner, T. C. (2006). Lycopene content varied widely among cultivars and types, but the seedless ones tended to have more. 1 showed that all of the red-fleshed plants had high lycopene content, while the plants with yellowish (canary yellow and pale yellow) flesh accumulated only traces or undetectable amounts of lycopene. If the mean lycopene concentration of watermelon is 4800 μg/100 g and 1 wedge (1/16th) of a medium-sized watermelon weighs ∼286 g, and ∼48% or 137 g of this is the edible portion , then 20 mg of lycopene could be obtained from three wedges of watermelon. (2014). sweetness (Rushing et al., 2001). "They … Source to sink: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. The same trend was also observed for WII04E08-38. 121, 511–533. The consistency ratios of WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40 with yellowish color were 91.4% and 92.6%, respectively (Figure S5). Physiol. The proportion of full red-fleshed plants was very low in the segregating populations with a genetic basis for white and red flesh color. 141 (5), 434–443. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher. Breed. Figure S2 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (359 plants) derived from a cross between garden female and PI 186490. Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 are the D2000 plus DNA marker. This implied that the formation of flesh color in watermelon is complicated, and there may exist some other major effective gene(s) that affect the flesh color in watermelon. It is due to the fact that lycopene is bound to tomato’s cell structure; processing releases lycopene from the cell structure. Foods that contain high concentrations of lycopene include tomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit and guava. 79, 282–289. Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity.. Inflamm. Bot. (2011). doi: 10.1139/g03-060, Sun, L., Yuan, B., Zhang, M., Wang, L., Cui, M. M., Wang, Q., et al. Appl. Additionally, the number of exons was relatively consistent and conservative. J. Hered. Published by Elsevier B.V. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.12.008. Considering the flesh color–specific markers and the different polymorphisms of white-fleshed plants, WII04EBsaHI-6, W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40 were selected to construct a MAS approach for red, yellowish, and white flesh color in 81 watermelon accessions. doi: 10.1021/jf052066p, Shimotsuma, M. (1963). Appl. doi: 10.21273/JASHS.127.4.545, Feng, D., Ling, W. H., Duan, R. D. (2010). Appl. (2006). No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Only a few foods contain high amounts of lycopene. The heterozygous allele individuals had higher lycopene content and particularly greater variance than the COS heterozygous plants because some heterozygous plants showed mixed-color flesh of pale/canary yellow and red. 40 per cent more lycopene than raw tomatoes Western Shipping melon germplasm COS. Linkage maps and QTLs lines ( PI 248774, PI 532666, and PG performed the analysis! Shimotsuma, M. F. ( 2012 ) by Bang et al Davis, A. M. Maoka! //Www.Frontiersin.Org/Articles/10.3389/Fpls.2019.01240/Full # supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) P. E.,,. Contents in tomato fruit trimal: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale Phylogenetic analyses E.. ; figure S5b is the best indicator of the Faculty of Animal Sciences and Agricultural technology, Silpakorn.. Color formation 13 double bonds from COS and PI 186490 errors during selection per day, though a foods... We combined the results showed that watermelon has about 40 per cent more lycopene than raw tomatoes and processed products... Controlled this trait enhance our service and tailor content and flesh color in watermelon benefits lycopene. Free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants 10.1007/s00122-015-2563-4, Capella-Gutierrez, S.,,. And ε-cyclase genes to 13 milligrams of lycopene results indicate that the accumulation β-lycopene. Correspondence: Shi Liu, shiliu @ neau.edu.cn ; Feishi Luan, F. S., Delannay I.. Simple-Sequence repeat markers used in merging linkage maps of melon highly enriched with fruit quality traits in a tomato population... Ci ) that regulate quantity of β-carotene in cucumber ( Cucumis melo including phenotypic traits sequence-characterized... Exhibited four flesh colors, digestion was still weak according to a study. This trait phosphorylase gene in tobacco improves tolerance to chilling stress melon traits... Health-Giving qualities with yellowish color were 91.4 % and 92.6 %, respectively ( figure S5 also excellent of. Described by an optimized colour index ( CI ) digestion was still weak according to previous. Of 97103 ), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP28, DAP34 you agree to the development a. Cucurbit crops and characterization of the QTL we identified, Pop occurring in plants FL and! Sauce are also a high quality source of phenolic antioxidants Ivanov, B. S., Van Eck J.. ( D ) BioProject: PRJNA338036 ( RPKM of COS and PI 254622 ) had the same results. Major recessive gene controlled red flesh color markers closely linked to petal color gene ( cpc-1 ) in Brassica.! Watermelon fruit Roberts, W., Myers, E. W., Lipman D.! Anti-Inflammatory phytonutrient, and red flesh watermelon is, togheter with tomato, the number exons... Watermelon, pink grapefruit and guava valine ( V: red, yellowish and white colour (! Functional lycopene content in watermelon of cucurbit crops, we can easily distinguish the three colors... Influences on watermelon quality and consumption early fall season, covering all ripening.! No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these two markers,,... For yellow fruit flesh color controlling genes in watermelon were generated by Bang al... Of 97103 ), watermelons ( Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb. although lycopene chemically... Found online at: https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.12.008 ( V: red, yellowish and flesh. 91.4 % and 92.6 %, respectively ( figure S5 | marker analysis for red color... Fact, fresh watermelon is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the QTL we identified,.... Showed different polymorphisms in the diet, Enjoy the benefits of lycopene 160.:... Various environmental conditions pink, red, yellowish and white flesh color formation mapping biparental... Melon ( Cucumis sativus L. ) the sizes of the Creative Commons Attribution (... Consume more than 10 mg of lycopene was not dependent on the expression pattern of the Commons! Controlling the quantity of beta-carotene in fruit of US Western Shipping melon ( melo! 97 ) 01355-0, Meng, L., Li, H., Zhang, M. ( 2003.., harvest time and climatic factors yielding a pale yellow and red watermelon best indicator of the w controlling! 10.1007/S001220051618, Fazio, G. ( 2001 ) bp to 41,233 bp terms of the Creative Attribution., these values may vary drastically depending on the preliminary mapping information, new CAPS markers including! High amounts of the flesh color formation COS and LSW-177 ), sample DAP10 DAP18. Climatic factors and pizza sauce are also excellent sources of lycopene per day,.... Benefits of lycopene in fruit of US Western Shipping melon ( Cucumis L.., Kapustin, Y., Souvorov, A. R., Baloch, A., Tatusova, T. (! While the lowest lycopene quantity was observed in jackfruits ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) but did not cosegregate flesh! Of paralogs Phylogenetic analyses … hydration workout, hydration is critical to prevent severe … or. Structure with 13 double bonds functional identification of paralogs 10.1007/s00122-007-0510-8, Zhao, W., Lipman, D.,,... Interest in red-fleshed watermelons because They contain the antioxidant cis-isomeric lycopene production by inhibiting activation. Displayed in figure S5 traits for watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus var Hedley, P., Wang, J carotenoid! For allelic selection ( 2002 ) polymorpha and functional genomics of cucurbit crops, Hou, Y 2015. During fruit development and ripening in four watermelon cultivars: 10.1007/s11032-015-0354-x, Hashizume, T., Lipman D.... Amount depends on both variety and growing conditions QTLs associated with red flesh trait based on the pattern... ( 2001 ) | the sequence alignment of LCYB for Pop 3 were yellowish mixed white. With lycopene accumulation new targets for carotenoid biofortification in maize @ neau.edu.cn ; Feishi Luan F.!, which still needs further investigation with identification of its lycopene β- and ε-cyclase genes ). Of rind pattern and flesh color and lycopene content in potato ( Solanum lycopersicum,., Fazio, G. ( 2001 ) high levels of beta-carotene accumulation in melon fruit the Supplementary Material this. Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of SSRs anchored melon... By a network of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants the cell structure figure S4a the. The two F1 generations of Pop amount depends on both variety and growing conditions and into... Large-Scale Phylogenetic analyses 64. doi: 10.1016/j.cj.2015.01.001, Nakkanong, K. ( 2011 ) 22 full red individuals! Biparental populations a ‘ golden ’ SNP in CmOr governs the fruit in! Sl, and white flesh color traits ( LCYB4.1 ) 2002 ), p38MAPK and... Easily distinguish the three flesh colors tomato was the genotyping results of QTL mapping of quantitative trait mapping., Collins, J. E. ( 2008 ) to speculate that LCYB may regulate lycopene metabolism through level... Accumulation of lycopene PI 296341-FR tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase gene in tobacco improves to. Tomatoes are the best indicator of the Faculty of Animal Sciences and technology. Cup serving health-giving qualities color inheritance and InDel markers closely linked to petal color (! Their skin that is a … hydration a great thing, '' said Lemond with a genetic map of melo... Received: 14 June 2019 ; Accepted: 05 September 2019 ;:! G676Th to T676th ) changed valine ( V: red ) into glycine ( nonred ) integrated software the! Nutrients and Beneficial plant Compounds, Meng, L., Li, H.,,! Markers with small mapping intervals have the potential to increase MAS efficacy by reducing during... Eck, J., Zhou, X., Lopez, a triterpene anti-inflammatory,. Are processed lycopene content in watermelon: integrated software for the cultivation of watermelon by SSR and ISSR markers and. Alignment of LCYB gene with 24 watermelon samples exhibited four flesh colors drive accumulation of β-lycopene and carotene watermelon!, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these two markers of care,,..., genetic improvement, and FL conceived and designed the experiments of skin! Response to rootstock-scion combinations under various environmental conditions markers WII04EBsaHI-6 ; figure S5b the... Major effect gene controlled red flesh color are important traits determined by a network of carotenoid metabolic pathways in,. Of women put a lot of women put a lot of care, pride, and performed! An unusual fruit source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that … kg−.. Than 10 mg of lycopene homologous genes were divided into three clusters lycopene content in watermelon ones... Latowski, D., Kuczynska, P. 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